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Activity 1

You will need:  PLASTICINE, CARDS

Wolly Mammoth
1.  Form groups of four.

2.  Find out information on extinct or endangered animals from various resources.

3.  Make a model of the animals.


4.  Write a short description of the reason why they become extinct or are endangered.

5.  Suggest ways to protect endangered animals.

6.  Display them at the back of the class.

Exercise II

Answer all questions.

1.  Complete the table below by using the following words.

     Wind    Edible    Water    Spongy receptacle   Animals    Wing-like structures

Way of dispersal:  __________________

 Special characteristics:
* Light seeds
* _________________

Way of dispersal:  __________________
Special characteristics:                                                    
* ___________________
* Fleshy
* Bright in colour
* Contains many tiny seeds

Way of dispersal:  __________________
Special characteristics:
* Light
* _______________

2.  The picture shows a turtle laying eggs in the sand of the beach.

(a)  State two ways practised by the animal shown in the picture to take care of its egg.

      1.  ______________________________________
      2.  ______________________________________

(b)  State two inferences for your answer in (a)
      1.  ______________________________________
      2.  ______________________________________              

(c)  Do all the baby turtles manage to survive?


(d)  Give one reason for your answer 1(c).


3.  The picture shows seeds or fruits of four different types of plants.

     (a)  State the methods of dispersal of seeds by the following plants.

            (i)     K: _____________
            (ii)    L: _____________
            (iii)   M: ____________
            (iv)   N: _____________

     (b)  Give three characteristics of the seeds of Plant N that help them in their way of seed dispersal.

         1. __________________________
         2. __________________________
         3. __________________________

    (c)  Give one other example of a plant that disperses its seeds like plant:

          (i)     K: _____________
          (ii)    L: _____________
          (iii)   M: ____________
          (iv)   N: _____________

Importance of Survival

Animals and plants need food to survive.  One animal species is a source of food to another.  For example, eagles eat snakes.  If snakes do not survive, there will be shortage of food for eagles.  The eagles may become extinct.

Animals and plants may become extinct because of some other factors.  This includes illegal hunting, deforestation and natural disasters.

Illegal hunting


Exercise 1

Choose the correct answer.

1.  Which of the following is the meaning of survival of the species?

     A  Animals reproducing their offspring.
     B  Animals looking  after their offspring.
     C  The relationship between the animals and the plants for their needs to survive.
     D  The ability to survive so as to maintain the descendants of the plants and animals.

2.  The picture shows a species of an animal.


      How does this animal take care of its offspring?
      A  By attacking their enemy.
      B  By feeding their young ones.
      C  By keeping them in their mouth.
      D  By hiding their eggs in dark places.

3.  Why do animals take care of their offspring?

     A  To play with them.
     B  To help each other.
     C  To eat them when they grow big.
     D  To prevent them form extinction.

4.  The picture shows a toad.

     Which other animal protects its eggs in a way similar to the animal shown in the picture?
     A  Birds                  C  Snake
     B  Turtle                  D Grasshopper

5.  The following is a description about animal X.

  •      Lays eggs at high places
  •      Incubate their eggs
  •      Feeds its young
  •      Looks after its young until they can live on their own

     Which of the following could be animal X ?
     A  Hen         C  Duck
     B  Bird        D  Lizard

6.  Why do the plant species need to disperse their seeds far away from the parent plants?

     I    To get enough food
     II   To get enough sunlight
     III  To reduce the overcrowding of plants at one place
     A  I and II            C  II and III
     B  I and III           D  I, II and III

7.  The picture shows a balsam plant dispersing its seeds.


     What is the method of dispersal of seeds shown in the picture?

     A  Explosive mechanism
     B  By animals
     C  By water
     D  By wind

8.  What is the importance of dispersal of seed?

     A  For survival
     B  For protection
     C  For adaptation
     D  For development

Plant Survival

Plants cannot move freely.  Therefore, their seeds and fruits need to be dispersed from the parent plants.  They are dispersed by wind, animal, water or explosive mechanism.


Pong Pong

These fruits are dispersed by water.  They are covered with waxy skin.  It prevents water from entering the fruit.  Air spaces in the husk help the fruit to float.



These seeds and fruits are dispersed by wind.  They are small, light, dry and have wing-like structure or fine hair.  These characteristics help them to be flown far away easily.

These seeds and fruits are dispersed by animals.  Most of these fruits are brightly coloured, fleshy, edible and have smells.  The seeds are usually hard.


Some fruits have hooks that can be attached to animals.

These fruits disperse their seeds by explosive mechanism.  They dry up and burst to push the seeds out from the fruits.

Dispersal of seeds and fruits help to scatter them far away from the parent plants.   This helps to ensure the survival of plant species.

Read more on Seed Dispersal... Click here

Animal Survival - Part II

Let us look at how some animals take care of their eggs and young

Frog lay slimy eggs.  The slimy covering will then be eaten by the tadpoles when the eggs hatch.

Cockroaches lay their eggs and hide them in dark places such as in the cupboard.

Birds feed their young until the young can fly out of the nest to find their own food.

Elephants stay in their herds.  

How does this behaviour protect their cubs?
Read this !

Kangaroos carry their joeys in their pouches since birth.  They nurse their joeys with milk.  Joeys will be safe and warm in the pouch until they are too big to fit into the pouch.

Male snakeheads keep their young in their mouth to protect them.

A tiger mother will take care of her cubs until they are six to eight weeks old.  Attacking the enemies is a way the mother tries to protect its cubs.

Animals take care of their eggs and young from being eaten or destroyed by their enemies.  This will ensure the survival of their species.

Click here back to Animal Survival - Part I

Animal Survival - Part I

Tigers, elephants, cats and cows are different species of animals.  Species are similar types of living things that can breed among themselves.

Animals reproduce to make sure their species continue to exist.  However, being able to reproduce is not enough.  Animals have to take care of their eggs and young.

These are examples of animals that take care of their eggs.



Sea horse



These are examples of animals that take care of their young.





Click here continue to Animal Survival - Part II